Assignments for non-majors
To begin an experiment, you must first design the phenotypes for the flies that
will be mated. In addition to wild-type flies, 29 different mutations of the
common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are included in FlyLab. The
29 mutations are actual known mutations in Drosophila. These mutations
create phenotypic changes in bristle shape, body color, antennae shape, eye
color, eye shape, wing size, wing shape, wing vein structure, and wing angle.
For the purposes of the simulation, genetic inheritance in FlyLab follows
Mendelian principles of complete dominance. Examples of incomplete dominance
are not demonstrated with this simulation. A table of the mutant phenotypes
available in FlyLab can be viewed by clicking on the Genetic Abbreviations tab
which appears at the top of the FlyLab homepage. When you select a particular
phenotype, you are not provided with any information about the dominance or
recessiveness of each mutation. FlyLab will select a fly that is homozygous for
the particular mutation that you choose, unless a mutation is lethal in the
homozygous condition in which case the fly chosen will be heterozygous. Two of
your challenges will be to determine the zygosity of each fly in your cross and
to determine the effects of each allele by analyzing the offspring from your
One advantage of FlyLab is that you will have the opportunity to study
inheritance in large numbers of offspring. FlyLab will also introduce random
experimental deviation to the data as would occur in an actual experiment! As a
result, the statistical analysis that you will apply to your data when
performing chi-square analysis will provide you with a very accurate and
realistic analysis of your data to confirm or refute your hypotheses.
For your ease in completing each assignment, the background text relevant to the
experiment that you will perform is italicized, instructions for each
assignment are indicated by plain text, and questions or activities that you
will be asked to provide answers for are indicated by bold text.
Getting to Know FlyLab: Performing Monohybrid, Dihybrid, and Trihybrid Crosses
To begin a cross, you must first select the phenotypes of the flies that you
want to mate. Follow the directions below to create a monohybrid cross between
a wild-type female fly and a male fly with sepia eyes.
To design a wild-type female fly, click on the Design button below the gray
image of the female fly. Click on the button for the Eye Color trait on the
left side of the Design view. The small button next to the words "Wild Type"
should already be selected (bolded). To choose this phenotype, click the Select
button below the image of the fly at the bottom of the design screen. Remember
that this fly represents a true-breeding parent that is homozygous for wild type
alleles. The selected female fly now appears on the screen with a "+" symbol
indicating the wild-type phenotype.
To design a male fly with sepia eyes, click on the Design button below the gray
image of the male fly. Click on the button for the Eye Color trait on the left
side of the Design view. Click on the small button next to the word "Sepia."
Note how eye color in this fly compares with the wild-type eye color. Choose
this fly by clicking on the Select button below the image of the fly at the
bottom of the Design screen. The male fly now appears on the screen with the
abbreviation "SE" indicating the sepia eye mutation. This fly is homozygous for
the sepia eye allele. These two flies represent the parental generation (P
generation) for your cross.
Based on what you know about the principles of Mendelian genetics, predict
the phenotypic ratio that you would expect to see for the F1
offspring of this cross and describe the phenotype of each fly.
To select the number of offspring to create by this mating, click on the popup
menu on the left side of the screen and select 10,000 flies. To mate the two
flies, click on the Mate button between the two flies. Note the fly images that
appear in the box at the bottom of the screen. Scroll up to see the parent
flies and down to see the wild type offspring. These offspring are the F1
generation. Are the phenotypes of the F1 offspring what you would
have predicted for this cross? Why or why not? Note: The actual
number of F1 offspring created by FlyLab does not exactly equal the
10,000 offspring that you selected. This difference represents the experimental
error introduced by FlyLab.
To save the results of this cross to your lab notes, click on the Analyze Results
button on the lower left side of the screen. The view will change to a summary
of the results for this cross. Note the number of offspring, proportion of each
phenotype and observed ratios for each observed phenotype. Click the Add Data
to Notebook button at the top right side of the window. The Notebook will appear
in a new window. To comment on these results in your notebook, click to move
the cursor to the space above the dashed line and type a comment such as, "These
are the results of the F1 generation for my first monohybrid cross."
Close the Notebook window and click the Return to Lab button in the upper left
side of the FlyLab window to return to the Mate screen.
To set up a cross between two F1 offspring to produce an F2
generation, be sure that you are looking at the two wild-type offspring flies in
the box at the bottom of the screen. If not, scroll to the bottom of this box
until the word "Offspring" appears in the center of the box. Click the Select
button below the female wild-type fly image, then click the Select button below
the male wild-type fly image. Note that the two F1 offspring that
you just selected appear at the top of the screen as the flies chosen for your
new mating. Click on the Mate button between the two flies. The F2
generation of flies now appears in the box at the bottom of the screen. Use the
scroll buttons to view the phenotypes of the F2 offspring.
Examine the phenotypes of the offspring produced and save the results to your
lab notes by clicking on the Results Summary button on the lower left side of
the Mate view. Note observed phenotypic ratios of the F2 offspring. Click
the Add to Lab Notes button at the bottom of the panel. Click the OK button to
close the panel.
To validate or reject a hypothesis, perform a chi-square analysis as follows.
Click on the Chi-Square Test button on the lower left side of the screen. To
ignore the effects of sex on this cross, click on the Ignore Sex button. Enter a
predicted ratio for a hypothesis that you want to test. For example, if you
want to test a 4:1 ratio, enter a 4 in the first box under the Hypothesis column
and enter a 1 in the second box. To evaluate the effects of sex on this cross,
simply type a 4 in each of the first two boxes, and type a 1 in each of the last
two boxes. Click the Test Hypothesis button at the bottom of the panel. A new
panel will appear with the results of the chi-square analysis. Note the level
of significance displayed with a recommendation to either reject or not reject
your hypothesis. What was the recommendation from the chi-square test? Was your
ratio accepted or rejected? Click the Add to Lab Notes button to add the
results of this test to your lab notes. Click OK to close this panel.
To examine and edit your lab notes, click on the Lab Notes button in the lower
left corner of the screen. Click the cursor below the recommendation line and
type the following: "These are my results for the F2 generation of my
first monohybrid cross. These data do not seem to follow a 4:1 ratio." To print
your lab notes, you can export this data table as an html file by clicking on
the Export button. In a few seconds, a new browser window should appear with a
copy of your lab notes. You can now save this file to disk and/or print a copy
of your lab notes. Click the Close button at the bottom of the panel to close
Repeat the chi-square analysis with a new ratio until you discover a ratio
that will not be rejected. What did you discover to be the correct phenotypic
ratio for this experiment? Was this what you expected? Why or why not? What do
the results of this experiment tell you about the dominance or recessiveness of
the sepia allele for eye color?
Click on the New Mate button in the lower left corner of the screen to clear
your previous cross. Following the procedure described above, perform
monohybrid crosses for at least three other characters. For each cross, develop
a hypothesis to predict the results of the phenotypes in the F1 and F2
generations and perform chi-square analysis to compare your observed ratios with
your predicted ratios. For each individual cross, try varying the number of
What effect, if any, does this have on the results produced and your
ability to perform chi-square analysis on these data? If any of your crosses do
not follow an expected pattern of inheritance, provide possible reasons to
account for your results.
Once you are comfortable with using FlyLab to perform a monohybrid cross, design
a dihybrid cross by selecting and crossing an ebony body female fly with a male
fly that has the vestigial mutation for wing size.
Develop a hypothesis to predict the results of this cross and describe
each phenotype that you would expect to see in both the F1 and F2
generations of this cross.
Analyze the results of each cross by Chi-square analysis and save your data
to your lab notes as previously described in the assignments for a monohybrid
Describe the phenotypes that you observed in both the F1 and F2
generations of this cross. How does the observed phenotypic ratio for the F2
generation compare with your predicted phenotypic ratio? Explain your answer.
Use FlyLab to perform a trihybrid cross by designing and crossing a wild-type
female fly and a male fly with dumpy wing shape, ebony body color, and shaven
Develop a hypothesis to predict the results of this cross and describe
each phenotype that you would expect to see in the F2 generation of
this cross. Perform your cross and evaluate your hypothesis by Chi-square
analysis. What was the trihybrid phenotypic ratio produced for the F2
A testcross is a valuable way to use a genetic cross to determine the
genotype of an organism that shows a dominant phenotype but unknown genotype.
For instance, using Mendel's peas, a pea plant with purple flowers as the
dominant phenotype could have either a homozygous or a heterozygous genotype.
With a testcross, the organism with an unknown genotype for a dominant phenotype
is crossed with an organism that is homozygous recessive for the same trait. In
the animal- and plant-breeding industries, testcrosses are one way in which the
unknown genotype of an organism with a dominant trait can be determined.
Perform the following experiment to help you understand how a testcross can be
used to determine the genotype of an organism.
Design a female fly with brown eye (BW) color (keep all other traits as wild-type),
and design a male fly with ebony body color (E; keep all other traits as wild-type).
Mate the two flies. Examine the F1 offspring from this cross and save your data
to your lab notes. Add to your data any comments that you would like.
To determine the genotype of an F1 wild-type female fly, design a
male fly with brown eye color and ebony body color, then cross this fly with an
F1 wild-type female fly. Examine the results of this cross and save
the results to your lab notes.
What was the phenotypic ratio for the offspring resulting from this testcross?
Based on this phenotypic ratio, determine whether the F1 wild-type
female male was double homozygous or double heterozygous for the eye color and
body color alleles. Explain your answer. If your answer was double homozygous,
describe an expected phenotypic ratio for the offspring produced from a
testcross with a double heterozygous fly. If your answer was double
heterozygous, describe an expected phenotypic ratio for the offspring produced
from a testcross with a homozygous fly.