Notebook: Record your own notes on the results of the lab — your hypotheses, details about results, and conclusions. You can also copy results from the large family pedigrees directly to the Notebook — see Export Whole List. below. You can also copy the entire contents of the Notebook to a HTML page for saving or printing using the menu of commands in your browser.
Assignments: Doing the assignments is critical to understanding the concepts of this lab. The assignments here were written to benefit a wide range of biology classes and you should find them helpful, but check with your instructor before proceeding with any assignments.
Genetic Calculator: This helps you determine what types of offspring will be produced by parents with various genotypes for the disease and RFLP probe. You can use the pull down menu to choose from five possible genetic hypotheses: (1) the trait and probe are linked on the same autosomal chromosome, (2) the trait and probe are autosomal and on different chromosomes (unlinked), (3) the trait is on the X-chromosome (sex-linked) and the probe is autosomal (unlinked), (4) the trait is autosomal and the probe is on the X-chromosome (unlinked), and (5) both the trait and the probe are on the X-chromosome (linked). You can use the pull down menus to specify the arrangements of alleles of the parents. The Calulate Punnett Square(s) button will produce a Punnett Square for all possibilites of no crossing over and crossing over in the male and female parent. The Export Results button will export the Punnett Squares as a gif image to an HTML page. Use your browser menu commands to save or print the image.
These tabs show four different views: Information, Full Pedigree, Large Family, and Chromosome ViewINFORMATION
Shows the entire pedigree. The full pedigrees incorporate instances of rare diseases. You should look at several different pedigrees to determine a pattern of inheritance. Within the full pedigree screen are
Pedigree Symbols: Circles represent females and squares represent males. A filled symbol represents a person with the disease. You can place a genotype label below a person by double-clicking on the symbol and entering your label in the panel that appears on the screen.
Probe: Several different RFLP probes are available to test for linkage with the disease. Use this pull down list to select an RFLP probe for your search. The genetic maps for these probes appear on the chromosome view.
Pedigree Symbols: Circles represent females and squares represent males. A filled symbol represents a person with the disease. You can view the RFLP gel pattern for a person by clicking in their symbol. You can place a genotype label below a person by double-clicking on the symbol and entering your label in the panel that appears on the screen.
Pedigree Data: You can use the arrow button to keep a count of the number of offspring who are nonrecombinants or recombinants. The totals for all pedigrees in the current search are displayed at the bottom of the window. Also displayed is the percent recombination and the LOD score. The latter is the logarithm of the ratio of the probability that the trait and probe are linked divided by the probability that they are unlinked. An LOD score greater than 3.0 is good evidence that the trait and probe are linked.
Previous Search Results: This box contains a summary list of your previous databse searches. You can select a search clicking on its entry. You retrieve a search by double-clicking on its entry.
Retrieve Results: If you have selected an entry among the list of previous searches, this button will return you to exactly where you left off with that search. This has the same effect as double-clicking on the entry in the list.
Export Whole List: This button will append the summary list of your previous database searches as text at the end of the notebook. You can add your own comments to the Notebook.
Delete Search: This will clear results of the search that you have selected in the list. A panel appears to ask you to verify this action. Once a search is deleted it can not be retrieved.
Clear All Searches: This will clear all of the search results that appear in the list. A panel appears to ask you to verify this action. Once these searches are deleted they can not be retrieved.
This view represents portions of four of the 22 human autosomes and the X-chromosome. Each chromosome segment is 20 map units in length. The telomeres (ends of chromosome) appear as rounded and the centromeres appear as ovals. The chromosome number appears below chromosme segment. The selected genetic disease is located somewhere on this genetic map. You can drag the colored pointer on the right side of the window to your best curtrent estimate for its correct location on one of the chromosomes.